Friday, July 17, 2020

How to Write a Graduation Speech

How to Write a Graduation Speech Delivering a graduation speech, also referred to as the commencement address, it a significant milestone in every student’s educational and life path. At this point, you have to give thanks to the educational institution that provided you with valuable knowledge and skills, reflect on your personal and professional growth experienced during the course of studies, while at the same time not being trivial and dull. A bit of a challenge, right? Don’t be afraid, we have tips and advice to make the process of writing a great graduation speech interesting and pleasurable. Obviously, it is you who is in the center of the graduation speech, since it is your personal story and personal life path, but our graduation speech ideas may help you with structuring and drafting an interesting, memorable speech, finding the right words and making the whole story unique. Enjoy the ride! What is a Graduation Speech, After All? You are asking the right question! How to make an amazing graduation speech if you don’t even know what it is? We’ll correct the issue very quickly â€" look at our simple explanation for dummies to get better involved with the subject of graduation speech production. A graduation speech is the speech that you are expected to deliver in public, that is, to your family, friends, student population, and administration of the school in which you have been studying for years. Hence, it cannot be perceived as a plain piece of writing, since it has to inspire and motivate people; moreover, it should reveal you as a personality. It should not be a typical story about hardships and overcoming them in the process of education, offering a unique story of a personality instead, and at the same time containing some moral lesson the audience might embrace. Obviously, not all graduation speeches are fantastic; for the majority of people, the rank highest in the list of least memorable life events. This happens because too many graduates include predictable messages about fulfilling their dreams, fighting for their rights and recognition, gratitude to their parents and thought leaders, and struggle against certain forms of injustice. Though these events may be highly significant for one’s life, they have already become quite trivial at the broader scale. Don’t make similar mistakes â€" craft a speech that will remain in the annals of your educational institution for years! Brainstorming is the Clue So how to start a graduation speech that will become a truly impressive, outstanding piece of your personal writing and self-expression? Our advice is â€" brainstorm! At the start of the writing process, you may have too many ideas circling in your head and not letting you concentrate on some vital points. Remember: you cannot include everything in a graduation speech. It is highly advisable to make a short graduation speech, but it nevertheless does not mean that you have to say a few meaningless words. Eloquence is the grandest talent of a public speaker, so brainstorm for ideas first, and then remove everything insignificant to maintain and condense the gist of your personal growth, progress, and reflections in a brief and impressive piece of performance. For effective, fruitful brainstorming, you should: Think of things you can state truthfully without those sugary thanks to your family and supervisors. Be true to yourself â€" only the truth may look sincere enough from the stage to interest and involve the audience. Recollect all great memories you have since the times of the start of your education. Focus on funny but morally enriching experiences â€" the audience loves funny graduation speeches â€" but avoid sarcasm or open humiliation of other people. Think of your future prospects and aspirations. Look for something that will truly reveal your connection with school and the way in which it informed your future career choice; be frank but observant, and you will see the delicate links and associations to speak about. Write down as many ideas as possible without evaluating their significance or propriety for the graduation speech. After the brainstorming is over, you will have time to think them over and prioritize what you have. Structuring a Graduation Speech Any tips for writing a graduation speech include one unavoidable step: composition of structure and outline. A strict outline is a vital component of successful graduation speech writing. As soon as you start writing, you may get confused or deviate from the initially established themes and arguments, which will waste your time and most likely induce you to start anew. Structuring is the key to order, and ordering your thoughts when writing about yourself may be a crucial contribution to quick and easy graduation speech completion. Where to look for effective structures? Search through the list of world-famous people’s commencement speeches, you can find a huge amount of valuable tips and ideas on how to write a graduation speech. Check the graduation speeches of US Presidents, famous United Nations figures, outstanding businesspeople (e.g., Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg) to find unbeatable themes for graduation speeches Start with a strong message and then illustrate how you learned it â€" from your experience and life wisdom obtained from overcoming challenges Make a speech a list of short and memorable thesis statements about your life observations or experiences to make a large number of points So, what should the outline of a graduation speech contain? We’ll reveal no secret if we say: introduction, body, conclusion. As an experienced student, you may be quite well familiarized with this traditional structure of all written assignments by now, but what about the graduation speech? Should it follow the usual essay structure? Not quite. Keep in mind that this is a speech something people will not read but listen; structure your introduction and conclusion as usual, but don’t push too many complex facts, statistics, and elegant long sentences into the body of the speech. Get Reviews to Check the Impression Upon completion of a draft, you may feel tired working on the speech and may haste to deem it complete and ideal, ready for the delivery. We will disappoint you â€" the way towards successful delivery of your speech is only half through! To construct a more objective and comprehensive opinion about your speech, ask your friends, family, or fellow students to listen to it and give feedback. Peer review is the best way to look at the speech from aside and to fine-tune some problematic moments you may fail to notice simply because you have been working on the task for so long. Moreover, rehearsal of the speech in front of a small number of listeners may help you create the mini-scenario of what it will look like on the actual speech delivery day, thus preparing you for the public speaking act better than any mental, abstract preparation can. To Proofread or not to Proofread? That Is the Question Proofreading a speech may sound as nonsense to you, since it is not an essay or research paper than needs to be submitted to the supervisor and will be graded for consistency, correctness of spelling and grammar, and other typos and mistakes. It is an oral piece, so errors should not matter much, right? Moreover, nobody will grade your performance…. These thoughts are too tempting to give yourself time for editing and proofreading the speech â€" but don’t yield to them, it is a trap! Proofreading is required to any piece of writing or speaking, especially for speeches â€" as soon as you start speaking, nothing can be changed or edited. Keep in mind that when you are rehearsing and preparing the speech in the safe surroundings of your room or class, you may be confident that you will deal with some inconsistencies. However, when you start speaking in front of broad public, your tension and stress may let you down, so it is vital for the written speech to be ideal, for you to be able to resort to it at some moments of speaking. If you make too long pauses and find it hard to locate the idea you were voicing on paper, the speech may fail. Hence, we strongly recommend thorough proofreading and fine-tuning of the speech text so that you were 100% confident in it before starting the actual speech. Why Practice before Delivering the Speech? Let’s face the truth â€" even a superbly written graduation speech may succeed only if it is properly delivered, which is done personally by you, standing in front of a huge number of people. Some of them will listen with genuine interest; for others it will be nothing but a formality; regardless of the intentions and mood of the public, you have to be able to speak confidently and with charm, which cannot be done if you do not prepare for the public address. After all, the impression that your speech will produce is all about the power of storytelling, so let yourself go in the rehearsals, get comfortable with your text, and you will feel much better during the actual speech. Here are some benefits of rehearsal: You can apply the skill of public speaking before the actual speaking to see what works for you best and to learn from those experiences in a safe environment You can try several versions of the speech before choosing the one you feel is the most powerful, or cut the irrelevant parts of a long speech to make it concise You can record the speech and then listen to it for in-depth self-analysis and further fine-tuning of the speech to achieve excellence and total satisfaction When rehearsing your speech, don’t forget to leave enough time for yourself; experimentation with the tone and face expression, revision of the speech text, and testing of the new variants may be lengthier than you might initially suppose. The “Wow” Day: Speech Delivery At this point, you have already become the guru of graduation speech writing, but here is the problem: while you have managed to write and submit previous assignments without the need to deliver them, this is the assignment that cannot be silently handed in to your supervisor! You have to deliver it on your own in public, and the way in which you will do this will determine its effect even more than its content. How to deliver a graduation speech with dignity and ease so that the audience indeed heard the message and liked it? How to feel confident and relaxed when speaking to such a large number of listeners? No doubt, the actual speech delivery may be very stressful, and even the best masterpiece, if delivered improperly, may not be heard. Here are some pieces of advice from our experts of public speaking and oratory art to follow: Before starting to speak about yourself, give credit to the previous speaker to show you do not care only about your own speech but listen to others as well Introduce yourself by name â€" there is a high likelihood of someone in the audience not knowing you personally Include some motivational message or quote from some outstanding person’s public speeches to show your credo; it is the easiest and most expressive way of introducing you as a personality and outlining your life values Tell an involving story about you that nevertheless may touch the strings of hearts of many people and is universally relevant Call to action; a speech without a call may vanish in oblivion in a couple of minutes Make connections â€" between quotes and your experiences, between the opening message and lessons learned in your conclusion Speak confidently and look at different people without focusing on one figure Smile (not to be confused with a nervous grim) At the end of the speech, thank the listeners for their attention. A final piece of advice for those still not knowing why on earth they have to withstand the stress of speaking about themselves in public: this is you, after all, and the event is highly meaningful for you and your family above everything. Keep this in your heart and mind when delivering the speech, speak to your dearest ones without paying attention to the crowd, and this will be definitely a sincere and warm graduation speech about your accomplishments and your pathway. Even if it is not grand and is not included in the handbooks for learning to write awesome graduation speeches â€" it will be you in the words and lines of the speech, which is all that matters.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Tobacco Industry Profiting From Death - 1091 Words

The tobacco industry in America is one that every person is affected by. In the past year over 3,000 people died from second-hand smoke related deaths (Above the Even non-smokers are heavily affected by this moneymaking industry. The real question though, is how is a product that kills justified in the market? This product is not only addictive, but also highly threatening to the lives of its users. The majority of users do not realize it, but in reality they are paying for their own funeral. Tobacco and cigarette companies continue to feed lies to the public through their marketing strategies and product makeup. Hidden documents containing information on the toxicity and pharmacological properties of nicotine†¦show more content†¦The surgeon general warnings on a pack of cigarettes expose many of the astonishing effects of smoking. With the massive amount of knowledge and warnings publicized, why has a significant impact not been made on the lives of smoker s? In the past year over 440,000 people died from smoking cigarettes, in which the majority were people that began smoking before they were 18 years old (Above the The clear scientific fact that the tobacco industry targets adolescents is an epidemic that needs to be stopped. An experiment was taken with a base consisting of people under the age of 18 that had never smoked a cigarette. The study showed that after several years, the majority of the original people reported that they either had tried a cigarette, or would have if it was presented to them (Pierce). The experiment proved the targeting of adolescents by cigarette and tobacco companies. Living on a college campus of over 25,000 students, it is clear that the tobacco industry affects us all. Whether it is an addiction to cigarettes, the use of other tobacco products, or second hand smoke that we are forced to inhale, we are all influenced and subjected to the tobacco industry’s harms. We all see the cigarette butts covering campus, people walking to class with a cigarette in their hand, or even a hookah being smoked outside on the benches. It is evident that the tobacco industry has reached many when it comes to college campuses. It has become clear that theShow MoreRelated Tobacco Essay905 Words   |  4 PagesA PAPER REGARDING THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY (3 PAGES). The Killing Business? This paper is about the tobacco industry. Some would find that the label ‘killing business’ is very appropriate. Others would say that that name is misleading and inaccurate. Biased, I am not. So we will look at the issue in regards to the industry from both consumer and producer points of perspective with fairness and equality in reach. With an open mind now, let’s peer closer at the aftermath tobacco has left us standing inRead MoreShould Big Tobacco Be Sued for Health Care Bills? An Analysis998 Words   |  4 Pages Should big tobacco be sued for health bill? An analysis A recent ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada on the subject of smoking is the main topic of my articles. The landmark ruling made on September 30th gives the province of British Columbia ammunition against big tobacco companies. The decision allows British Columbia to sue tobacco companies for damages related to smoking-related health care costs dating back 50 years (Bell Globalmedia Inc [BGMI], 2005). Many expect theRead MoreArgumentative Essay About Marijuana1308 Words   |  6 Pagessimple. Weed indeed proves to be beneficial and should not be prohibited or illegal. Society shames Cannabis smokers because it is inhaled the same way as tobacco, and those that are against it have developed the notion that it is bad for people’s health. However, society fails to realize that Marijuanas effects are helpful and not any different from any other drug as it fights off illnesses, lacks addictive chemicals and qualities, can be used productively, and legalization makes it chall enging forRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1121 Words   |  5 Pagesstarting to resurface. Keeping this drug illegal could cause more problems for Mississippi. Fully legalizing marijuana, while making it limited with restrictions could stimulate our economy. By abolishing the ban on marijuana use and treating it like tobacco and alcohol, the state would receive immediate and long-term benefits. Marijuana can be used as a medical plant to help people who are in need. Marijuana is a naturally found plant that is identified all around the world. This plant is perceivedRead MoreInjustice And Power Imbalances Between Africa And Europe1436 Words   |  6 Pagesinvestment for major European powerhouses such as the British Russian empires, the so-called â€Å"Scramble for Africa† was a major part of the late 1800’s. This was not without some degree of racism, as Europeans were quick to buy cheap, if not free, labor from the indigenous populations and use rivalries between groups to further divide and conquer the country. The balance of power between Africa and Europe continued to shift unfairly as colonization continued, and left lasting effects on both continents;Read MoreShould Marijuana Be Legal?1793 Words   |  8 PagesNearly 100 million people in the united states have used marijuana. This past year government surveys have found that over 14 million Americans smoke marijuana despite the strict laws due to it being a schedule 1 drug. Behind alcohol and tobacco, marijuana is the third most accepted recreational drug. The United States of America’s current marijuana policies do not reflect the reality that almost one third of the entire country’s population supports the legalization of marijuana. This vast majorityRead More Alcohol Consumption Essay2409 Words   |  10 Pageseach year roughly 13,400 people die and an additional 255,500 are injured in motor vehicle crashes involving an alcohol-impaired driver according to Burris et al., 2011. In 2006, these crashes accounted for almost a third of all U.S. traffic-related deaths (Burris et al., 2011). Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance in the United States according to Pandrea, Happel, Amedee, Bagby, Nelson, 2010, and studies show that reducing alcohol consumption can lead to public health improvements suchRead MoreEffective Understanding of Cultural Differences Will Be Key to Successful Business Operations in the 21st Century. Discuss This Statement Using Examples from Two Sectors.4254 Words   |  18 Pagescentury. Discuss this statement using examples from two sectors. Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate why it is essential to understand cultural differences to achieve success in the 21st century. The paper focuses on the adaptations that different industries are incorporating into their business practices to meet the needs of the global consumer. In particular, the paper attempts to address the adaptations that industries are undergoing to cater to ethical and migrationRead MoreWalgreens Analysis2782 Words   |  12 PagesWalgreens Strategy Analysis Retailing: MKTG 3740 B April 7, 2013 I. History and Mission Statement Walgreens has grown from a small, neighborhood-oriented drug store to a trusted, national pharmacy. Founded in 1901 by Charles R. Walgreen, the company bloomed from a commitment made to perseverance. Walgreen came from Dixon, Illinois at the age of sixteen, working an unpleasant job at a drug store after he lost a portion of a finger that left him incapable of continuing a career in athleticsRead MoreThe Atlantic Slave Trade And Analyse What And How Much, African Political And Economic Interests Shaped The Trade Essay2445 Words   |  10 Pagesbegan with the Portuguese on the West African coast in the 15th century, advancing constantly till the 19th century, with a key turning point in the mid 17th century with the booming sugar industry dominating the demand for slave labour. The European demand for slaves was a result of their intentness in profiting from conquests in the New World, and it can be argued that they chose Africans for the trade because of their physical resilience an d resistance towards disease, the comparatively close distance

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Unitarism - 1592 Words

Employment Relations Essay Introduction: Unitarism, which also called human resource management, it is an organization is perceived as an integrated and harmonious whole with the ideal of one big happy family, where management and other members of the staff all share a common purpose, emphasizing mutual cooperation. Another opposite approach is pluralism which called industry relationship. There are no common interest in the organization and different loyalty and authority inside. This essay will argue that the unitarism approach is not beneficial for all actors in the employment relationship. And it will do a comparison through different country, China and Australia. Body: Unitarism approach focus on the fixed human resource†¦show more content†¦For example, the Foxconn electronic factory in China, which makes products for major laptop and mobile phone such as Apple, Dell, HP, Sony, Nintendo. At past, it has confirmed that totally 11 employees suicide as the reason with the pressure. Foxconn has the nice work condition and work place. This means that the employees will get more some intangible pressure whether or not the high paid, if they not have a smooth communication with the managers, some people who do not have strong psychology and self release ability, the result will be like Foxconn incident (Tam, 2010). As the two most important roles in the human resource management, if the employers notice the excessive task, the employees will be less pressure felling than non report. Consequently the employees will de stress or dissatisfaction. It also stressful for the employers due to the decision making and manage cost, more flexible emp loyment relationship, it needs more input in order to get a normal organization operating. Exchange the role in original trade union. The employers should be more concerned the relation with employees. The employees will be easily changed or fired within the unitarism approach, without the union and state support, the human resource management will be focus in the individualShow MoreRelatedUnitarism, Pluralism and Radicalism Essay3733 Words   |  15 Pagesshort, this project must conform to normal University standards, including full referencing and a reference list. An executive summary or abstract is not required. Topic: Describe the three main perspectives or approaches to industrial relations (unitarism, pluralism and radicalism) and their more recent adaptations (HRM, neo-institutionalism and labour process theory), and then explain conflict and cooperation at work from these perspectives. Criteria for Assessment: ï‚ · demonstrated understanding ofRead MoreWhat Are Go od Industrial Relations?1934 Words   |  8 Pagestheir unions at the workplace, the actions of the Management, and the behavior of the Government; the researchers have divided the industrial relations into three different categories. These categories of industrial or employment relations include Unitarism, Pluralism, and Radicalism. All these fundamental tenets of industrial relations are based on employee welfare policies, ethical considerations, and resolution of all types of problems related to industrial relations (Cornelius, 2001). This paperRead MoreThe Organization Of Trade Unions1514 Words   |  7 Pages2006) Currently, the unitarism of employment relation and pluralism of employment relation are the major popular theories of employment relation in modern enterprises. The unitarism thinks that all the inner motives of employees will be reflected in the pursuit of reward (Latham and Pinder, 2005). The employment relation is supposed to be a long term partnership between employers and employees who have common interest, the maximized profit (Ulrich and Brockbank, 2005). The unitarism has avoided the conflictRead MoreApproaches and Theories Regarding Industrial Relations1694 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered in this essay; unitarism, pluralism, and radicalism. They all have different views of workplace relations’ whether it is related to work related conflict, the role of unions or job regulation. The question that we can ask is do any of these theories can be defined as good industrial relations and why. â€Å"Unitarists theory believes that the work organization is held together by common objectives that unite managers and workers† (Barnetson, 2009, Lesson note 6, Unitarism) which means that thereRead MoreEmployment Relationship Is Critical Within The Workplace1056 Words   |  5 Pagesproposed three main frames of reference and their influence on approaches to the employment relationship; Unitarism, Pluralism and Marxism. All these frameworks help to conceptualise the employment relationship and influence the choices that organisations make in relation to managing their human capital. One of the approaches that can be used to conceptualise the employment relationship is unitarism. A unitarist approach views employers and employees as always having common interests whilst attemptingRead MoreEmployee Relations HND 2013 Assignment 1 Essay2437 Words   |  10 Pages(yes) or X (No)) Assessors Name: Ms. Himani Avasthi Date Issued : Contents Question 1: Unitary Perspective; Unitarism is considered to be as a family-type system where the association is alleged to be an incorporated and pleasant atmosphere like a happy family. A principal theory of the unitary approach is all employees and the employers as well in the entire organizationRead MoreA Discussion on Trade Unions and whether Management Should Have the Right to Determine whether They Should Operate within Their Workplace1607 Words   |  7 Pagesmanagement should not have the right to determine whether a union should operate in the workplace. This will be done by looking at the role of the union and by looking from the point of view of each of the three employment relations perspectives: unitarism, pluralism and radicalism. The role of the union The very first unions emerged during the 19th century during the uprising of the industrial capitalist system. These unions were initially small in size and were formed by workers as a platform toRead MoreCollective Bargaining And The Intervention Of Trade Unions1923 Words   |  8 Pagesemployment relations: pluralism, unitarism and Marxism (which will not be discussed in this essay). Pluralism means to consider employees in an enterprise or industry as a group to negotiate with the employers while unitarism tends to look at employees individually and working terms can be negotiated between the employer and individual employee. Pluralism lessens the managerial prerogative but cannot take individual differences into consideration while unitarism is the contrary (Oram, 1984). In accordanceRead MoreConflict in Employment Relationship with Reference to the Unitarist, Pluralist and Marxist Perspective2254 Words   |  10 Pagestrade-off between the firms profit and the income of the em ployee, and the tension between work decisions conditions controlled by the employee and the employer (Boxall John Purcell, 2003). While pluralism is basically the opposite view of unitarism, the Marxist view shares some basic assumptions with pluralism such as Difference of interests and Inevitability of conflict, however, Marxists put power and class at the centre of their analysis, rather than rules regulations (Wergin, 2004). TheRead MoreThe Problem Of Rule By Using A Real Modern Business836 Words   |  4 Pagesimprove their businesses. However, controversy might not be a good thing for manufacturing factories like Foxconn. Because the most important thing for them should be high productivity rather than creative. In other words, comparing to pluralism, unitarism might more match the objective of Foxconn.

Enzyme Inhibition Free Essays

string(68) " can be potent enough to work in vivo at reasonable concentrations\." Enzyme Inhibition Many drugs exert their action by inhibition of an enzyme activity in the body. If the activity of an enzyme is vital to the cell or organism, then inhibition may lead to death of the cell or organism. It is now possible to design new drugs which are enzyme inhibitors once a target enzyme has been identified. We will write a custom essay sample on Enzyme Inhibition or any similar topic only for you Order Now Types of Inhibitors A) Reversible Inhibitors:  The effect of the inhibitor is instantaneous, and it can be removed from the enzyme by dialysis so that the enzyme activity is returned to normal. Such inhibitors interact with the enzyme by weak non-covalent bonds to form an enzyme inhibitor complex. E + I ? EI B) Irreversible Inhibitors:  These inhibitors bind very tightly to the enzyme, sometimes by formation of covalent bonds to form an enzyme inhibitor compound rather than a loose complex. The effect is therefore progressive with time reaching a maximum when all of the enzyme has reacted. This is not easily reversed by simple physical treatments such as dialysis. E + I EI Reversible Inhibition of Enzymes There are three types of reversible enzyme inhibition;  competitive, non-competitive  (also called mixed)  and uncompetitive. Competitive- molecules which closely resemble the substrate in size, shape and charge distribution may also slip into the active site. This may result in reaction i. e. the second molecule is another substrate for the enzyme, or it may result in inhibition because the active site is blocked. The inhibitor has a separate equilibrium with the enzyme. The binding of substrate and inhibitor is mutually exclusive. E + S ? ES E + P, E + I ? EI Each of these equilibria is characterised by a dissociation constant. The first by Km (the Michaelis constant) and the second by Ki which characterises the binding between enzyme and inhibitor. If sufficient [S] is present then eventually the inhibition by I will be overcome. This is the diagnostic test for this type of inhibition. Both I and S compete for the available enzyme. The activity of an enzyme is described by the following equation: (Michaelis- Menton equation) In the presence of a  competitive reversible inhibitor, this equation becomes; So the  Michaelis constant  (which is a reciprocal measure of affinity of E and S) is changed by the factor 1 + [I]/Ki where [I] is the inhibitor concentration and  Ki is the dissociation constant for the equilibrium between E and I. Most importantly,  Vmax is unchanged  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ this is diagnostic for this type of inhibition. Ki is best defined as the concentration of inhibitor required to slow the reaction to half the rate it shows in the absence of inhibitor. It is a reciprocal measure of the affinity of E and I. Lineweaver-Burk Plot for Competitive Reversible Inhibition The  intercept on the y axis represents 1/Vmax. The slope is altered by the factor 1 + [I]/Ki, but the  easiest way to calculate Ki  is from the  ratio of the intercepts on the x axis. Without inhibitor the intercept is -1//Km, with inhibitor it is -1/Km(1+[I]/Ki), so the ratio (bigger over smaller so it is greater than 1) is 1 + [I]/Ki. Easiest way to calculate Ki  is from the  ratio of the intercepts on the x axis. Equation: Other Types of Reversible Inhibition Uncompetitive- This type of reversible inhibition is said to occur when the inhibitor binds with the enzyme-substrate complex rather than the enzyme. Substrate and inhibitor bind dependently. Noncompetitive (Mixed)- This type occurs when the inhibitor binds to both the enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex. Substrate and inhibitor bind independently. Irreversible Inhibition of Enzymes Reversible  means that the timescale of the inhibition is similar to that of the enzyme action, usually measured over a few minutes. Irreversible  means that the enzyme activity is inhibited for times significantly longer than the assay times for the enzyme. It does not necessarily mean that the inhibition will not reverse given sufficient time i. . hours, days or weeks. Some of the most interesting examples of enzyme inhibitors as drugs are those which fall between the two extremes and are sometimes defined as Quasi-Irreversible. These include tight-binding inhibitors, transition state analogues and slowly dissociating intermediates. Tight-Binding inhibitors  and  Transition State Analogues  form high affinity complexes with the enzyme and m ay have Ki values in the order of nanomolar (10-9  mol L-1). The value of Ki will be very important in describing the potency of this type of inhibitor. As a rough guide the inhibitor concentration causing 50% inhibition (I50) is used as a measure of Ki. Slowly Dissociating Intermediates  react with the enzyme to form covalent intermediates which take time to dissociate from the enzyme. A Classification of Enzyme Inhibitors as Drugs For a compound to work as a drug in vivo it will ideally have TWO very important properties. These are; Potency  To work in vivo as an enzyme inhibitor the inhibitor will need to be potent enough so that the dose required is in the order of milligrams to grams. Specificity  If a compound is a nonspecific enzyme inhibitor it is more likely to be toxic and exhibit serious side effects. It may be a poison. Simple Reversible- A simple reversible inhibitor binds to the enzyme and decreases the enzyme activity instantaneously and reverses within the time of the enzyme action. The inhibitor binds non-covalently (ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van Der Waal’s forces) to the enzyme and the strength of binding is of a similar order to the substrate i. e. Ki will be of similar size to Km. For very good reasons, the Km values for enzymes vary between about 10-2  mol L-1  to 10-6mol L-1. Unlikely to be potent enough to work in vivo where competition occurs in a dynamic metabolic situation. For a simple competitive inhibitor the inhibition will be self-limiting. If an enzyme is not rate limiting, it may be necessary to achieve ;90% inhibition before any increase in substrate concentration occurs. To do this the inhibitor concentration needs to be approximately 20 times the Ki value. Conformationally Restricted Competitive Inhibitors- It is possible that a reversible competitive inhibitor which is a conformationally restricted analogue of the substrate will have a much higher affinity for the enzyme han does the substrate and hence can be potent enough to work in vivo at reasonable concentrations. You read "Enzyme Inhibition" in category "Essay examples" Such compounds may have Ki values in the region of 1 x 10-7  mol L-1 Quasi-Irreversible Tight Binding Inhibitors- This is an extension of the previous class i. e. competitive inhibitors which are conformationally res tricted and/or have many non-covalent interactions leading to long lasting complexes. Therefore binding is very tight (Ki in order of 10-9  mol L-1  to 10-10  mol L-1) and these compounds are potent enough to act as drugs in vivo. Transition State Analogues- Theoretically, an analogue of a transition state (or reaction intermediate) for the enzyme catalysed reaction will bind much tighter than an analogue of the substrate. The outcome is a potent and potentially specific inhibitor. Theoretically, Ki values can be very low. In practice if Ki values in the region of Nano molar can be achieved, these are potent enough to work in vivo. As we shall see, there has been much work in this area on proteases including HIV protease and there are now a major class of drugs which has been developed on this principle. Slowly Dissociating Intermediates- Some enzymes form covalent intermediates as part of their mechanism e. g. acetylcholinesterase. It is possible for a compound to act as a pseudo-substrate and be converted into a long lasting intermediate. Such an inhibition is time dependent and in some cases is virtually irreversible. Sometimes the intermediate is hydrolysed in minutes or hours but this is still much longer than the normal enzyme mechanism when the intermediate would last only milliseconds. Examples include the anticholinesterases neostigmine and physostigmine (eserine) and penicillin. Irreversible Nonspecific: a. Heavy metal poisons e. g. cyanide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide- Some enzymes and other important proteins such as Haemoglobin and Cytochromes, require metals as cofactors. These metals are often transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and ligands which are electron rich will form co-ordinate covalent bonds with these metals will inactivate these proteins. These bonds are strong and very often these ligands are toxic because of this irreversible inactivation. Cyanide reacts with cytochrome oxidase which is the terminal electron carrier in the electron transport chain by ligand formation with the Cu atom at the centre of its mechanism. Similarly, carbon monoxide complexes with the Fe atom in the haem cofactor of haemoglobin. b. Heavy metal ions e. g. mercury, lead etc. – These are common irreversible inhibitors because of their ability to complex firmly with particular groups in enzymes. These effects can be reversed by treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA (ethylene di-amino tetra acetic acid). c. Thiol poisons e. . alkylating agents, Arsenic (III) Many enzymes contain thiol (-SH) groups in amino acid side chains – cysteine, which are essential for catalytic activity. Any compound which reacts with these functional groups will poison the enzyme. E. g. Iodoacetamide  (alkylating agent) Arsenic- The most toxic form of Arsenic is As (III) as in arsenite AsO2. In this form, Arsenic reacts rapidly with  thiol groups, e specially with dithiols such as lipoic acid which is an essential cofactor for some important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and -ketoglutarate dehyrdrogenase. You should remember these enzymes as part of the link reaction and the citric acid cycle. When these enzymes are blocked, respiration stops. Arsenic derivatives have been prepared as very poisonous war gases e. g. Lewisite. antidote called  Dimercaprol (‘British Anti-Lewisite’)  was designed by incorporating two thiols for the poison to react with. The two thiol groups react with the arsenical war gas forming a stable compound and thus stopping it from blocking the thiol groups in lipoic acid. Dimercaprol  is used these days as an antidote to poisoning with heavy metals such as antimony, arsenic, mercury, bismuth, gold, thallium. It is also used in conjunction with pencillamine in the treatment of lead poisoning (see BNF). Specific Irreversible Inhibitors: Affinity Labels (Active site directed irreversible inhibitors)- An analogue of the substrate which binds to the active site of an enzyme, but which contains a chemically reactive group, has the potential to form covalent bonds with side chains at or near the active site. These inhibitors are irreversible and have been very useful in elucidating enzyme mechanisms but their reactive nature makes them likely to be toxic when used in vivo. Mechanism-based Inhibitors (‘suicide reagents’) – The principle of this sort of inhibition is that a pseudo substrate is accepted by the enzyme which then catalyses the production of its own inhibitor which reacts covalently in the active site. Such inhibitors should be specific as well as potent. Certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors have this mechanism, also the -lactamase inhibitors (e. g. clavulanate). The pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) dependent enzymes have been a particular candidate for the development of this kind of inhibitor (e. g. difluoromethyldopa). Enzyme inhibitors: Edrophonium – conformationally restricted competitive reversible, ACE inhibitors – Tight binding, HIV protease inhibitors – Transition state analogues, Neostigmine, Penicillin – Slowly dissociating intermediates DFP – Irreversible group specific reagent, Clavulanate – mechanism-based irreversible inhibitor. Types of Enzyme Inhibitors Simple Reversible| Competitive (also uncompetitive, noncompetitive, mixed)| Simple substrate analogues Michaelis-Menten kinetics Ki in region of Km i. e. 10-2  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 10-6  M| Restricted Conformation| Rigid shape similar to favoured substrate fit Ki less than Km| e. g. drophonium as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase| Quasi-Irreversible| Tight Binding Ki can be in region of nanomolar| E. g. ACE inhibitors Captopril, enalapril etc. | | Transition State Analogues. Binding constant theoretically below nanomolar| Inhibitors of proteinases e. g. pepsin, renin, HIV proteinase| | Slowly Dissociating Intermediates à ¢â‚¬â€œ time dependent kinetics| e. g. neostigmine, eserine as anticholinesterases Penicillin| Irreversible| Heavy metal poisons etc| Cyanide, Hydrogen Sulphide, Carbon Monoxide| | Group reagents| e. g. Arsenic (III), Iodoacetamide| | DFP action on esterases| | Affinity labels| TPCK on Chymotrypsin| | Mechanism Based (‘suicide inhibitors’)| e. g. Clavulanate onlactamase| Enzyme Inhibitors as Drugs ENZYME| INHIBITOR(S)| USES| Acetylcholinesterase| Edrophonium Neostigmine Eserine| Myasthenia Gravis Glaucoma Paralytic Ileus| Monoamine Oxidase| Tranylcypramine| Depression| Xanthine Oxidase| Allopurinol| Gout, adjunct to Cancer chemotherapy| Carbonic Anhydrase| Acetazolamide| Diuresis| Dihydrofolate Reductase| Methotrexate| Leukaemia| Transpeptidase| Penicillin| Antibacterial| Cyclo-oxygenase| Aspirin etc. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs| Analgesia Anti-inflammatory Anti-platelet| Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)| Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril etc. | Anti-hypertension| Thymidylate Synthetase| Fluorouracil| Cancer chemotherapy| Penicillinase (-lactamase)| Clavulanate etc| Anti-bacterial| HIV proteinase| Saquinovar etc| HIV treatment| Reverse Transcriptase| AZT| HIV treatment| HMG-CoA Reductase| Statins, pravastatin etc. | Coronary Heart Disease| Phospodiesterase V| Viagra| Erectile dysfunction| How to cite Enzyme Inhibition, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Of Mice and Men and to Kill a Mockingbird free essay sample

American Dream ultimately means many things to many people. In many ways it can be argued to have originated with the ideals and success of Benjamin Franklin. As one author notes, â€Å"Franklin believed that the only true way to wealth was through hard work. This noble idea became the soul of the† American Dream, the idea that all people are created equal and each person has the same opportunity to achieve success†(Benjamin Franklin). However, that ideal of the American Dream became more associated with wealth and material wealth than it did with hard work and noble goals. So, the American Dream means many things to many different people. With that in mind the following paper compares and contrasts the American Dream presented in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird and John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men. In Harper Lee’s novel the story is about a young girl, her brother, and her father who is a lawyer. We will write a custom essay sample on Of Mice and Men and to Kill a Mockingbird or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This girl, Scout, grows and learns about many things through the course of the novel and it is often considered to be a coming of age novellas Scout grows up in many ways, seeing truth wherein she used to be innocent. When speaking of the American Dream in this novel one must perhaps look at Scout’s father. He is a man who is noble, honest, and humble. He fights for the rights of an African American accused of raping a white woman even though the small town despises his involvement. He fights for justice and equality in the world and one could well argue that thesis his American Dream. In Steinbeck’s the American Dream is far more readily defined. The two main characters, George and Lonnie are essentially wanderers during the Great Depression, seeking work and trying to survive as best they can. However, they aren’t necessarily happy with this reality for â€Å"George and Lennie dreamt of their ‘little house and a couple of acres’†. Throughout the story, up until the demise of Lennie, Lennie constantly dreams of this American Dream and while George wants it he perhaps does not feel he will ever attain it. Lennie, for example, always seems to be asking George, â€Å"George, how long’s it gonna be till we get that little place an’ live on the fatta the lan’-an’rabbits? ’†(Steinbeck 53). As can be seen, both stories offer a very different look at the American Dream. However, at the same time both books present main characters that are not wealthy and as such seek a simple American Dream in terms of material realities. One author notes, â€Å"For many the goal was not extravagant wealth, but, rather, economic independence and the opportunity for social advancement through financial gain†. This could well be related to be stories although differently. For example, in Lee’s novel the father, Atticus, is happy in his economic success, though they are honestly relatively poor. He was economically independent, however, and is happy enough with that. He pushes his American Dream to involve all people, dreaming that people can truly see justice done no matter who they are, and perhaps dreaming that people were nots o ignorant or fearful of what they did not understand. He is an honorable man fighting for honorable reasons, as evidenced when he tells Scout, â€Å"’ I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. Its when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do’† (Lee 128). In the case of George and Lennie all they want is simple economic independence so that they can live off the fat of the land and grow their own food and live their own life humbly and simply. They are not necessarily asking for social advancement save through existing and not having to struggle every day to find food and work. Like Atticus, they are, or would be, happy with simple stability in terms of economic gain and like Atticus they are not afraid to work for it, which is the ultimate foundation of the American Dream. Forces against tyranny and even though atticus does not win the case, he still won in the sense that he fought for what he believed in and didn’t not give in to the mores and prejudices that surrounds him.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The 13 Forms of Insect Antennae

The 13 Forms of Insect Antennae Antennae are movable sensory organs located on the head of most arthropods. All insects have a pair of antennae, but spiders have none. Insect antennae are segmented, and usually located above or between the eyes. How Do Insects Use Antennae? Antennae serve different sensory functions for different insects. In general, the antennae might be used to detect odors and tastes, wind speed and direction, heat and moisture, and even touch. A few insects have auditory insects on their antennae, so theyre involved in hearing.  In some insects, the antennae may even serve a non-sensory function, such as grasping prey. 13 Different Shapes Because antennae serve different functions, their forms vary greatly within the insect world. In all, there are about 13 different antennae shapes, and the form of an insects antennae may be an important key to its identification. Learn to differentiate the forms of insect antennae, and it will help you improve your insect identification skills. Aristate Are Pouch-Like Aristate antennae are pouch-like, with a lateral bristle. Aristate antennae are most notably found in the Diptera (true flies). Capitate Have a Prominent Club or Knob at Their Ends Capitate antennae have a prominent club or knob at their ends. The term capitate derives from the Latin caput, meaning head. Butterflies (Lepidoptera)  often have capitate form antennae. Clavate Have a Gradual Club or Knob The term clavate comes from the Latin  clava, meaning club. Clavate antennae terminate in a gradual club or knob (unlike the capitate antennae, which end with an abrupt, pronounced knob). This antennae form is found most often in beetles, such as in carrion beetles. Filiform Are Slender and Thread-Like The term filiform comes from the Latin filum, meaning thread. Filiform antennae are slender and thread-like in form. Because the segments are of uniform widths, there is no taper to filiform antennae. Examples of insects with filiform antennae include: rock crawlers (order Grylloblattodea)gladiators (order Mantophasmatodea)angel insects (order Zoraptera)cockroaches (order Blattodea) Flabellate Look Like a Folding Paper Fan Flabellate  comes from the Latin flabellum, meaning fan. In flabellate antennae, the terminal segments extend laterally, with long, parallel lobes that lie flat against one another. This feature looks like a folding paper fan. Flabellate (or flabelliform) antennae are found in several insect groups within the Coleoptera, the Hymenoptera, and the Lepidoptera. Geniculate Are Bent or Hinged Sharply Geniculate antennae are bent or hinged sharply, almost like a knee or elbow joint. The term geniculate derives from the Latin genu, meaning knee. Geniculate antennae are found mainly in ants or bees. Lamellate Are Flattened and Nested The term lamellate comes from the Latin lamella, meaning a thin plate or scale. In lamellate antennae, the segments at the tip are flattened and nested, so they look like a folding fan. To see an example of lamellate antennae, look at a scarab beetle. Monofiliform Look Like Strings of Beads Monofiliform comes from the Latin monile, meaning necklace. Moniliform antennae look like strings of beads. The segments are usually spherical, and uniform in size. The termites (order Isoptera) are a good example of insects with moniliform antennae. Pectinate Have a Comb-Like Shape The segments of pectinate antennae are longer on one side, giving each antennae a comb-like shape. Bipectinate antennae look like two-sided combs. The term pectinate derives from the Latin pectin, meaning comb. Pectinate antennae are found mainly in some beetles and sawflies. Plumose Have  a Feathery Appearance The segments of plumose antennae have fine branches, giving them a feathery appearance. The term plumose derives from the Latin pluma, meaning feather. Insects with plumose antennae include some of the true flies, such as mosquitoes, and moths. Serrate Look Like a Saw Blade The segments of serrate antennae are notched or angled on one side, making the antennae look like a saw blade. The term serrate derives from the Latin serra, meaning saw. Serrate antennae are found in some beetles. Setaceous Are Bristle-Shaped The term setaceous comes from the Latin seta, meaning bristle. Setaceous antennae are bristles of insects with setaceous antennae include mayflies (order Ephemeroptera) and dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata). Stylate Terminate in a Long, Slender Point Stylate  comes from the Latin  stylus, meaning pointed instrument. In stylate antennae, the final segment terminates in a long, slender point, called a style. The style may be hairlike but will extend from the end and never from the side. Stylate antennae are found most notably in certain true flies of the suborder Brachycera (such as robber flies, snipe flies, and bee flies). Source: Triplehorn, Charles A. and Johnson, Norman F. Borror and DeLongs Introduction to the Study of Insects. 7th Edition

Sunday, March 1, 2020

African American History and Women Timeline

African American History and Women Timeline What have African American women contributed to American history? How have they been affected by historical events? Find out in the timeline, which includes these: events featuring African American womenbirth and death dates for many notable African American womengeneral African American events which had significant impact on African American women and families as well as menevents involving key women whose work influenced African American history, for instance the involvement of many European American women in anti-slavery workbirth and death dates for key women whose work was important in African American history, for instance in anti-slavery or civil rights work Start with the timeline period youre most interested in: [1492-1699]  [1700-1799] [1800-1859] [1860-1869] [1870-1899] [1900-1919] [1920-1929] [1930-1939] [1940-1949] [1950-1959] [1960-1969] [1970-1979] [1980-1989] [1990-1999] [2000-] Women and African American History: 1492-1699 1492 Columbus discovered America, from the perspective of Europeans. Queen Isabella of Spain declared all indigenous peoples her subjects, in the lands claimed by Columbus for Spain, preventing the Spanish conquerors from enslaving the Native Americans. The Spanish thus looked elsewhere for the labor they needed to take advantage of the New Worlds economic opportunities. 1501 Spain permitted African slaves to be sent to the Americas 1511 first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola 1598 Isabel de Olvero, part of the Juan Guerra de Pesa Expedition, helped to colonize what has since become New Mexico 1619 (August 20) 20 men and women from Africa arrived on a slave ship and were sold in the first North American slave auction by British and international custom, Africans could be held in servitude for life, though white Christian indentured servants could only be held for a limited term 1622 Anthony Johnson, son of an African mother, arrived in Virginia. He lived with his wife, Mary Johnson, in Accomack on Virginias Eastern Shore, the first free Negroes in Virginia (Anthony taking his last name from his original master). Anthony and Mary Johnson eventually founded the first free black community in North America, and themselves held servants for life. 1624 Virginia census lists 23 Negroes including some women; ten have no names listed and the rest only first names, likely indicating lifetime servitude none of the women are listed as married 1625 Virginia census lists twelve black men and eleven black women; most have no names and do not have the dates of arrival that most white servants in the census have listed only one of the black men and women has a full name listed 1641 Massachusetts legalized slavery, specifying that a child inherited its status from the mother, rather than the father, reversing English common law about 1648 Tituba born (Salem witch trials figure; probably of Carib not African heritage) 1656 Elizabeth Key, whose mother was a slave and father was a white planter, sued for her freedom, claiming her fathers free status and her baptism as grounds and the courts upheld her claim 1657 A daughter of a free Negro Anthony Johnson, Jone Johnson, was given 100 acres of land by Debeada, an Indian ruler. 1661 Maryland  passed a law making every person of African descent in the colony a slave, including all children of African descent at birth whatever the free or enslaved status of the childs parents. 1662 Virginia House of Burgesses passed a law that a childs status followed the mothers, if the mother was not white, contrary to English common law in which the fathers status determined the childs 1663 Maryland passed a law under which free white women would lose their freedom if they married a black slave, and under which the children of white women and black men became slaves 1664 Maryland became the first of the future states to pass a law making it illegal for free English women to marry Negro slaves 1667 Virginia passed a law stating that baptism  could not free slaves by birth 1668 Virginia legislature declared that free black women were to be taxed, but not white women servants or other white women; that negro women, though permitted to enjoy their freedome could not have the rights of the English. 1670 Virginia passed a law that Negroes or Indians, even those free and baptized, could not purchase any Christians, but could purchase any of their owne nation [race] (i.e. free Africans could buy Africans and Indians could buy Indians) 1688 Aphra Behn (1640-1689, England) published the anti-slavery Oroonoka, or the History of the Royal Slave, first novel in English by a woman 1691 The term white is first used, rather than specific terms like English or Dutchman, in a law referring to English or other white women. 1692 Tituba disappeared from history (Salem witch trials figure; probably of Carib not African heritage) [Next] [1492-1699] [1700-1799] [1800-1859] [1860-1869] [1870-1899] [1900-1919] [1920-1929] [1930-1939] [1940-1949] [1950-1959] [1960-1969] [1970-1979] [1980-1989] [1990-1999] [2000-]